Showing posts with label Defense Day of Pakistan. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Defense Day of Pakistan. Show all posts

Monday, 5 September 2011

Al Zarrar: Main Battle Tank To Reckon With

Al Zarrar: Main Battle Tank To Reckon With
Tanks were first introduced by the British during World War I as a means to break the deadlock of trench warfare. They were first deployed at the Battle of Somme in limited numbers. During construction, to conceal their true identity as weapons, they were designated as water carriers for the Mesopotamian campaign and referred to as “tanks” (as in “water tank”). Over a period of time it all changed. Pakistan assembly line of T-59 tanks needed to be replaced. Al Zarrar MBT was born;

Al Zarrar is the modern Main Battle Tank of Pakistan Army. Its in defence production at the moment at Heavy Industries Taxila. The Al-Zarrar development programme started in 1990 and the first batch of 80 upgraded tanks were delivered to the Pakistan Army on 26 February 2004.


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Al-Zarrar’s primary armament is a 125 mm smoothbore tank gun with an autofrettaged, chrome-plated gun barrel. It is capable of firing APFSDS, HEAT-FS and HE-FS rounds as well as anti-tank guided missiles and a Pakistani DU (depleted uranium) round, the 125 mm Naiza. Naiza is capable of penetrating 550 mm of RHA armour at a distance of 2 km. Reloaded by a semi-automatic autoloader, the gun has a dual-axis stabilisation system and thermal imaging sights for the commander and gunner. integrated into the fire-control system. The image stabilised fire-control system includes a laser range-finder for accurate range information and ballistics computer to improve accuracy. An improved gun control system is also fitted.

The secondary armament consists of an external 12.7 mm anti-aircraft machine gun mounted on the roof of the turret, which can be aimed and fired from inside the tank, and a 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun.

The Al-Zarrar is powered by a liquid-cooled 12 cylinder diesel engine, giving a power output of 730 hp and torque output of 305 kg.m at 1300-1400rpm. A combat weight of 40 tonnes gives Al-Zarrar a power to weight ratio of 18.3 hp/tonne and a top speed of 65 km/h. Crew comfort is improved over the Type 59 by a modified torsion bar suspension system.


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Al-Zarrar uses modular composite armour and explosive reactive armour to give improved protection from anti-tank missiles, mines and other weapons. The Pakistani ATCOP LTS-1 laser threat warning system is fitted to inform the tank crew if the tank is targeted by a laser range-finder or laser designator. Smoke grenade launchers are fitted to the sides of the turret. An automatic fire-extinguishing and explosion suppression system is installed to improve crew survivability.

On 21 October 2008, the chief of the Bangladesh Army met his Pakistani counterpart to discuss a programme to modernise the Bangladesh Army’s fleet of Type 59 tanks. The Bangladesh Army may soon become the first export customer of the Al-Zarrar as it intends to upgrade 300 of its Type 59 tanks to Al-Zarrar standard at the 902 Heavy Workshop in Banglades
h.

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History of 6 September 1965


heart History of 6 September 1965.....




The 1965 War was a comical affair! Civilians at the foreign ministry assessed that the Indians could be knocked out at the strategic level while soldiers at the highest military level and political level, the president being a soldier were not interested in any military adventure. The civilian hawks led by Bhutto, however, were in league with a group of generals and brigadiers within the army and finally succeeded in persuading the president
(famous for tactical timidity in Burma) into embarking on a military adventure. Musa the army chief had little strategic insight and was against any military adventure in which he may be forced to exercise his qualities of leadership! Musa had rudimentary understanding of strategy and tank warfare since he was a political choice appointed more because he was seen as politically no threat rather than for any military strategic or operational talent!
The Pakistani offensive plan i.e. a thrust against Indian line of communication at Akhnur in case of a limited war in Kashmir or/and against Indian line of communication between Indian Corps holding Ravi-Sutlej Corridor at Jandiala Guru on Amritsar-Jullundhur road in case of an all out war was brilliant in conception. This was so because if successful any of the two plans would have forced the Indians to sue for peace at best and to surrender at worst. No less an authority than the Indian Western Command C in C Harbaksh Singh thus confessed
“A Blitzkrieg deep into our territory towards the Grand Trunk Road or the Beas Bridge would have found us in the helpless position of a commander paralysed into inaction for want of readily available reserves while the enemy was inexorably pushing deep into our vitals. It is a nightmarish feeling even when considered in retrospect at this stage”.
To the Pakistan Army’s misfortune a plan which was brilliant at the strategic and operational level failed simply because those who were leading the military machine at the highest level lacked the strategic insight as well as resolution! The first opportunity was thus missed in Chamb-Jaurian Sector, when even a foreigner i.e. Chinese Foreign Minister visiting Pakistani thought that Akhnur5 was the key!
The second and most serious operational failure occurred in Khem Karan.This had more to do with poor execution at the divisional and brigade level and poor initial higher organization and composition of troops at the divisional level. The first being an operational failure and the second being an organizational failure at the higher command level.
At the operational and tactical level three events stand out in the war i.e. the Grand Slam Operation in Chamb-Jaurian, blunting of Indian offensive at Chawinda at Gadgor on 8th September when one lone tank regiment gave a severe mauling to two tank regiments out of a total available Indian force of an armoured division, and a brigade level counter attack in Lahore Sector.
Grand Slam failed because of change of command! Not because Akhtar Malik was better than Yahya but because one man either Akhtar or Yahya should have conducted the whole operation! The Indians admitted that their position was saved because of the pause of 48 hours, which occurred at Tawi after the Pakistani Chief Musa ordered change of horses in the mid stream!
Now the battle of Gadgor. Technically Gadgor was 24 Infantry Brigade Group versus 1st Indian Armoured Division. In reality the contest was 25 Cavalry versus Poona and Hodsons Horse since 24 Brigade Commander told Colonel Nisar to “do something”6 the vaguest order of 1965 War! Nisar had no idea of what was in front but by a miraculous coup d oeil deployed his tank regiment 25 Cavalry in a manner which would produce an instant nervous breakdown in an instructor who taught tank tactics at the armour school! 25 Cavalry was deployed by Nisar like a thin line of steel! Like a thin net to catch a whale! The manoeuvre if it can be called one succeeded because the Indian brigade commander was paralysed by the fog of war! Thus Commander Indian 1st Armoured Brigade saw a finger as a mountain! He saw a threat to his flanks which in reality was a half squadron of Indian 62 Cavalry which had lost its way and fired at Indian Artillery opposite Rangre! What Nisar deployed after the “Do Something” order was seen by the Indian brigade commander as a tank brigade! Thus he lost the will to use two uncommitted tank regiments to outflank the Pakistani position! Gadgor was a psychological defeat inflicted on K.K Singh by Nisar with Nisar not knowing what was in front of him and K.K Singh over estimating three times what was really in front of him. Thus in cognitive terms, at Gadgor was a tank regiment commander who did not know what was in front of him against a tank brigade commander who was overawed by what he assessed was in front of him and was reduced into a state of total inertia and indecision. The important factor in this decisive battle was the fact that tangibly K.K Singh had the third tank regiment as well as three uncommitted squadrons within his two committed tank regiments with which he could have easily outflanked Nisar and got to his rear! Nisar had tangibly no reserves with which he could have countered K.K’s outflanking manoeuvre.
The counter attack of Brigadier Qayyum Sher in Lahore Sector was a successful divisional battle ordered by Major General Sarfaraz MC and executed by Brigadier Qayyum Sher most resolutely! It produced a crisis on the Indian side and threw the Indians off balance! Both retired in the same rank sometimes after the war!

Defense Day of Pakistan September 6


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Defense Day is celebrated on 6th September every year in Pakistan. It is celebrated on the memory of martyred people who gave sacrifices of their life for the defense of the country. Pak - India War II was fought in 1965. This was ended on 6th September and both countries stopped damaging each other by using weapons etc. on 6th September, Defense Day of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This war affected financially both countries but none of them could really dominate. As Pakistan remained saved, Defense Day is celebrated on 6th September.
Pakistan and India, both countries fought that war for the issue of Kashmir but this issue remained unsolved. A lot of people lost their lives from both countries and a lot of weapons were used. At last on 6th September, this war was ended with the support of UN.
Pakistan celebrates this day yet just for telling native of Pakistan that how people were brave at the critical time and were proud of offering sacrifices of their lives for the defense of Pakistan. Everyone must be wise and brave like martyred people at any critical time. No one should feel any kind of hesitation for offering sacrifice of his life at the time of need.
The day of 6th September starts with special prayers for the peace and prosperity of Pakistan. President and Prime Minister and many ministers of Islamic Republic of Pakistan address on 6th September from special functions of Defence Day.
Army officers like Captain Sarwar Shaheed,Major Tufail Shaheed,Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed, Major Shabbir Sharif Shaheed, Major Muhammad Akram Shaheed,Sawar Muhammad Hussain, Lance Naik Mehfooz Shaheed, Shaheed Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Shaheed, Captain Karnal Sher Shaheed and Havildar Lalak Jan Shaheed gave sacrifices of their life and were awarded with "Nishan-e-Hairder" on 6th September, 1965. Nishan-e-Haider is a special batch which is given to brave martyred people in Pakistan who leave remarkable examples of bravery and sacrifices for nation.
Army of Pakistan displays the latest missiles, tanks, guns, army aviation helicopters and armament being used by Engineers, Electrical and Mechanical Corps, Army Air Defense, Signals, Army Service Corps and Army Medical Corps live on various places. Everyone is allowed to watch such functions live by going to the specific places. These shows are displayed on national channels as well. National songs and special documents about 6th September, 1965 and martyred people of 6th September are displayed on TV. It is told to people how people gave sacrifices for the defence of the country and what is the responsibility of young generation now.
An environment of patriot passion is generated in the whole county on Defense Day. Everyone decides in his mind he will do such works which will be significant for the country and pray for the independence of the country.

Pakistan Defence Day (6th September)


The 6th of September is a golden chapter in Pakistan History, when Pakistan, its military and people stood united in 1965 in defense of Pakistan.
Happy Defense Day

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